Resource List

Bailey, A. (2012). Academic English. In J. Banks (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity in education (pp. 5-10). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

The Encyclopedia of Diversity in Education presents information on research, policy, statistics, case studies, and best practices at the K-12 level as it relates to the teaching of diverse populations. Dr. Alison Bailey has contributed an entry on Academic English in this dynamic series.


Breseith, L. (2014). Academic language and ELLs: What teachers need to know. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/academic-language-and-ells-what-teachers-need-know

This article helps educators understand the role that academic language plays in their classrooms and their students’ ability to fully participate in classroom activities and assignments.


Zwiers, J. (2014). Academic language and literacy. Retrieved from http://www.jeffzwiers.org/

This website provides tools for educators to help them accelerate and deepen students’ learning of academic language, literacy, and content knowledge.


Zwiers, J. (2014). Building academic language (2nd edition). USA: Jossey-Bass.

This book provides an overview of what academic language is and strategies for building students’ academic language. It focuses on grades 5-12.

National Education Association. (2015). All in!: How educators can advocate for English language learners. Washington DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/sites/default/files/ELL_AdvocacyGuide2015.pdf

This document provides an overview of five steps that advocates can take in support of ELs and includes supporting resources to foster advocacy efforts for ELs throughout the country.


Staehr Fenner, D. (2014). Advocating for English learners: A guide for educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

This book is intended for teachers and administrators to use in examining their views of advocacy for ELs and building their advocacy toolkit to better support ELs’ success. It covers such topics as the need for EL advocacy, strengthening collaboration among educators, increasing EL family involvement, and advocating for ELs in instruction and assessment.

Alvarez, L., Ananda, S., Walqui, A., Sato, E., & Rabinowitz, S. (2014). Focusing formative assessment on the needs of English language learners. Retrieved from http://www.wested.org/wp-content/files_mf/1391626953FormativeAssessment_report5.pdf

This article focuses on the ways in which formative assessment can enhance the teaching and learning of ELs and the opportunities and challenges associated with using formative assessments with ELs.


Bailey, A.L., & Heritage, M. (2008). Formative assessment for literacy, Grades K-6: Building reading and academic language skills across the curriculum. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin/Sage Press.

In this book, Dr. Alison Bailey and Dr. Margaret Heritage use research and practice to present the stages of literacy skill development, including authentic samples from classroom teachers. They also provide various strategies for helping educators develop students’ acquisition of academic language.


Colorín Colorado. (2007). Using informal assessments for English language learners. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/educators/assessment/informal/

This article from Colorín Colorado provides an overview of types of informal assessments to use with ELs and the benefits of using these assessments.


DelliCarpini, M. (2009). Success with ELLs: Authentic assessment for ELLs in the ELA classroom. The English Journal, 98(5), 116-119.

In this article, DelliCarpini, provides an overview of the challenges that ELs face with standardized assessments and makes recommendations for how to move towards more authentic assessment procedures for these students.


Gottlieb, M. (2016). Assessing language learners: Bridges to educational equity connecting academic language proficiency to academic achievement for English language learners and other students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

In this book by Dr. Margo Gottlieb, educators can find information on teaching academic language to ELs across disciplines, using linguistically and culturally responsive assessments, a reconceptualization of assessment “as,” “for,” and “of” learning, and reflection questions.


Staehr Fenner, D. (2015). Computer-based Common Core testing: Considerations and supports for ELLs [blog post]. Retrieved from http://blog.colorincolorado.org/2015/03/06/computer-based-common-core-testing-considerations-and-supports-for-ells/

In this blog post, Staehr Fenner provides an overview of the challenges that ELs may face with computerized testing and provides recommendations for better preparing ELs for online testing.


Staehr Fenner, D. (2016). Fair and square assessments for ELLs. Educational Leadership, 73(5). Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/feb16/vol73/num05/Fair-And-Square-Assessments-for-ELLs.aspx

In this article, Staehr Fenner outlines three strategies that educators can use to advocate for equity in assessment for their ELs. These strategies include choosing the right accommodations for state assessments, ensuring students are prepared for computer-based assessments, and using English language proficiency scores to plan instruction.

DelliCarpini, M. (2009). Dialogues across disciplines: Preparing English-as-a-second- language teachers for interdisciplinary collaboration. Current Issues in Education, 11(2), 1-25.

This study examined the benefits of successful collaboration between the ESL and classroom teachers across three educational levels.


Honigsfeld, A. & Dove, M. G. (2010). Collaboration and co‐teaching: Strategies for English learners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

This book highlights the importance of a whole-school approach to the teaching of ELs, where the collective expertise of teachers is harnessed through collaboration and co-teaching.


Maxwell, L. (2013). ESL teachers and content teachers team up to teach Common Core. Education Week. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2013/10/30/10cc-eslteachers.h33.html

This article addresses the notion that teachers, whether content or ESOL teachers, have to collaborate and foster supportive relationships in order to support ELs.

Hammond, Z. (2015). Culturally responsive teaching & the brain. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

In this book the author promotes the use of culturally responsive teaching and how to implement it through a framework that optimizes student engagement.


Kea, C., Campbell-Whatley, G., Richards, H. (2006). Becoming culturally responsive educators: Rethinking teacher education pedagogy. Retrieved from http://www.niusileadscape.org/docs/FINAL_PRODUCTS/NCCRESt/practitioner_briefs/%95%20TEMPLATE/DRAFTS/AUTHOR%20revisions/annablis%20pracbrief%20templates/Teacher_Ed_Brief_highres.pdf

This publication addresses the characteristics of culturally responsive teachers and provides guidelines for creating a culturally responsive curriculum.


National Education Association. (2015). Diversity toolkit: Cultural competence for educators. Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/tools/30402.htm

This online toolkit provides an introduction to the multiple facets of diversity. It offers basic information, a short list of strategies and tools, and suggestions for how to find out more.


National Education Association. (2015). Sounds great, but how do I do it? Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/home/16711.htm

The purpose of this publication is to identify research-based instructional strategies, school change activities, and family/school engagement efforts for closing the achievement gaps.


Nieto, S. (2013). Finding joy in teaching students of diverse backgrounds: Culturally responsive and socially just practices in U.S. classrooms. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

In this book the author explores the following questions through interviews with key stakeholders: What does it mean to be a teacher today, when students are more diverse in language, culture, race, and social class than ever before? What does it take to thrive, when the demands of teaching have never been greater?


Nieto, S. (2016). Culturally-responsive pedagogy: Some key features. Retrieved from http://www.sonianieto.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Culturally-Responsive-Teaching.pdf

In this document the author provides a list of key features of culturally responsive teaching.


Saifer, S., Edwards, K., Ellis, D., Ko, L., & Stuczynski, A. (2011). Culturally responsive standards-based teaching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin & Education Northwest.

This book explain why culturally responsive teaching is so important, makes recommendations for how to develop culturally responsive, standards-based instruction, and provides detailed examples for readers.

American Indian and Alaskan Native

Faircloth, S., & Tippeconnic, J. W. (2010). The dropout/graduation crisis among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Failure to respond places the future of Native peoples at risk. The Civil Rights Project. Retrieved from http://civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/research/k-12-education/school-dropouts/the-dropout-graduation-crisis-among-american-indian-and-alaska-native-students-failure-to-respond-places-the-future-of-native-peoples-at-risk/faircloth-tippeconnic-native-american-dropouts.pdf

This paper examines the graduation/dropout crisis among American Indian and Alaska Native students using data from the seven states with the highest percentage of American Indian and Alaska Native students as well as five states in the Pacific and Northwestern regions of the United States.


WIDA. (2014). WIDA focus on: American Indian English language learners. Retrieved from https://www.wida.us/professionaldev/educatorresources/focus.aspx

This publication examines the American Indian EL population and provides guidelines for teachers working with this specific group of students.

Early Childhood – Dual Language Learners

Nemeth, K. (2014). Young dual language learners. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon Publishing.

This book provides expert responses to questions asked by early childhood and elementary education administrators and preschool directors regarding educating young children who are ELs.


Neuman, S. & Wright, S (2013). All about words: Increasing vocabulary in the Common Core Classroom, PreK-2. New York, NY: Teacher’s College.

This book provides both a research-based consideration of the vocabulary teaching problem, and lots of practical insights into how to teach and otherwise expand children’s early language development, especially with informational texts.


WIDA. (2014). Early years programs: Supporting dual language learners. Retrieved from https://www.wida.us/professionaldev/educatorresources/focus.aspx

This publication provides suggestions for effective practices in supporting and instructing young Dual language learners. It also offers a tool for the leaders and practitioners to reflect on current practices.

ELs with Disabilities (Dually Identified ELs)

Hamayan, E., Marier, B., Sánchez-López, C., & Damico, J. (2013). Special education considerations for English language learners: Delivering a continuum of services. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon Publishing.

p style=”font-weight: 400; font-size: 14px;”>This book helps special education professionals learn how to assess the specific nature of an EL’s learning challenges, create a continuum of appropriate interventions, and measure the EL’s response to interventions.


NCELA. (2011, Spring). English learners with special needs, 3.3. Retrieved from http://ncela.us/accellerate/spring2011/

This publication includes a combination of articles that offer theory, research, and practice which address the characteristics of English learners with special needs (ELSN), effective intervention practices, and recommendations for professional development.


Stein, J. (2011). The case for collaboration: Integrating information on English learners and special education in teacher preparation programs. Multicultural Education, 19, 35-40. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ955943.pdf

This article is a brief compilation of classroom observations. It includes the proposition that a study of the classroom teacher’s role in the pre-referral and referral process, especially in relation to EL, should be included in teacher preparation programs in collaboration with special education professionals.

Gifted and Talented ELs

Harris, B., Plucker, J. A., Rapp, K. E., & Martinez, R. S. (2009). Identifying gifted and talented English language learners: A case study. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 32(3), 368–393. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ EJ835865.pdf

This publication relates to a study that describes GT/ELL identification practices based on an in-depth case study of one diverse school district in the Midwest. School personnel, parents, and students participated in separate semi-structured group interviews about their experiences regarding GT/EL identification.

Long Term English Learners (LTELs)

Calderon, M. E. & Minaya-Rowe, L. (2011). Preventing long-term ELs: Transforming schools to meet core standards. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

This practical guidebook’s 10 components for success will help educators at all levels close achievement gap that exists for ELs who struggle with academic content throughout their school years.


Olsen, L. (2014). Meeting the unique needs of long term English language learners. Washington, DC: National Education Association. Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/assets/docs/15420_LongTermEngLangLearner_final_web_3-24-14.pdf

This publication highlights best practices that meet the unique educational needs of Long Term English Learners.

Students with Interrupted Formal Education (SIFE)

New York State Education Department. (2011). Guidelines for educating limited English proficient students with interrupted formal education (LEP/ELL SIFES). Retrieved from: http://www.p12.nysed.gov/biling/docs/NYSEDSIFEGuidelines.pdf

This guide from the New York State Education Department presents information on working with long term ELs and ELs who are students with interrupted formal education (SIFE).


Robertson, K., & Lafond, S. (2008). How to support ELL students with interrupted formal education (SIFEs). Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/27483/

This article provides a profile of SIFEs and their needs, recommendations of best practices, and examples of the kinds of quality support that will accelerate their academic achievement.


WIDA. (2015) SLIFE: Students with limited or interrupted formal education. Retrieved from https://www.wida.us/professionaldev/educatorresources/focus.aspx

This publication focuses on the unique strengths and needs of SLIFE and explores academic and socio-emotional factors that may affect this group of ELs. It emphasizes the benefits of building community partnerships and provides a checklist of considerations for planning and delivering instruction to support the academic and linguistic development of these students.

Council of Chief State Schools Officers. (2012). Framework for English language proficiency standards corresponding to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards. Washington, DC: CCSSO. Retrieved from http://www.ccsso.org/Documents/2012/ELPD%20Framework%20Booklet-Final%20for%20web.pdf

This framework was created to guide the creation of English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards.

Breiseth, L. (2011). A guide for engaging ELL families: Twenty strategies for school leaders. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/pdfs/guides/Engaging-ELL-Families.pdf

This guide offers twenty big ideas to help school leaders get started on the path towards a strong home-school partnership.


Colorín Colorado. (2014). Building trust with families

Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kwuz5wEvuBE&list=PLrMqXQ2J_13ubw2OiTy9FdkAYHm_y2IIy&index=5

This video addresses the notion of how schools can create a welcoming culture and build trust with ELs and their families. It captures a panel discussion about parent involvement, school culture, and outreach opportunities to build strong bonds between home and school.


Mexican American Legal Defense Fund and National Education Association. (2010). Minority parent and community engagement: Best practices and policy recommendations for closing the gaps in student achievement. Washington, DC: National Education Association.

This publication was created In an effort to improve student achievement and to help to close the achievement gap. The Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF) and the National Education Association (NEA) partnered through their Parent Engagement initiatives to increase the inclusion and engagement of parents of color in their children’s education.

August, D. & Staehr Fenner, D., & Bright, A. (2014). Scaffolding instruction for English Language Learners: A Resource Guide for Mathematics. Washington, D.C: American Institutes for Research (pp. 6-7). Retrieved from https://www.engageny.org/resource/scaffolding-instruction-english-language-learners-resource-guides-english-language-arts-and

This publication provides guidance to educators on how to use mathematics curriculum materials and provide additional scaffolds for ELs according to their level of English language proficiency.


August, D., Staehr Fenner, D. & Snyder, S. (2014). Scaffolding instruction for English language learners: A resource guide for ELA. Retrieved from: https://www.engageny.org/resource/scaffolding-instruction-english-language-learners-resource-guides-english-language-arts-and

This publication provides guidance to educators on how to use English Language Arts curriculum materials and provide additional scaffolds for ELs according to their level of English language proficiency.


Baker, S., Lesaux, N. Jayanthi, M., Dimino, J. Proctor, C. P., Morris, & J. Newman-Gonchar, R. (2014). Teaching academic content and literacy to English learners in elementary and middle school (NCEE 2014-4012). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education,IInstitute for Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practice_guides/english_learners_pg_040114.pdf

The goal of this practice guide is to offer educators specific, evidence-based recommendations that address the challenge of teaching English learners in the elementary and middle grades: building their English language proficiency while simultaneously building literacy, numeracy skills, and content knowledge of social studies and science.


California Department of Education. (2014). English language arts/ English language development framework. Sacramento, CA: Author. Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/rl/cf/elaeldfrmwrksbeadopted.asp

This ELA/ELD Framework addresses English literacy and language, including reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language and the use and development of these skills across the disciplines.


Staehr Fenner, D. & Cooper, A. (2013). Practical strategies for implementing the Common Core with English learners. ILA E-ssentials. Retrieved from https://www.literacyworldwide.org/get-resources/ila-e-ssentials/8042

This article provides recommendations for helping ELs succeed within the CCSS framework. The article includes the teaching of academic language across content areas, creating content and language objectives, activating background knowledge, scaffolding informational texts, using writing prompts for different levels of students, and teaching ELs how to write a research question.


Zacarian, D. & Haynes, J. (2012). The essential guide for educating beginning English learners. Corwin.

This resource provides templates, tools, and vignettes illustrating real-world challenges to help teachers and administrators of ELs. It included strategies for beginning level ELs, support for creating welcoming environments, recommendations for creating connections to literate and non-literate homes, and recommendations for designing programs with SLIFE students in mind.


Zwiers, J. & Crawford, M. (2011). Academic conversations: Classroom talk that fosters critical thinking and content understandings. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.

This book supports teachers in cultivating academic conversation in the content areas through five core communication skills: elaborating and clarifying, supporting ideas with evidence, building on and/or challenging ideas, paraphrasing, and synthesizing.

Batalova, J. Hooker, S. & Ruiz Soto, A.G. (2015). Top languages spoken by English language learners nationally and by state. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved on 7/9/15 from: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/top-languages-spoken-english-language-learners-nationally-and-state

This publication provides current totals of the top languages spoken by ELs across the nation and is broken down by state.


Cook, H. G. & Linquanti, R. (2015). Strengthening policies and practices for the initial classification of English language learners: Insights from a national working session. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). Retrieved from http://www.ccsso.org/Documents/EL%20Classification%20Working%20Paper_FINAL_01%2026%202015.pdf

This report summarizes and further develops ideas discussed at a national working session held in 2014 to examine issues and options associated with initially classifying ELs.


National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition (NCELA), Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA). (2015). Fast facts: English learners (ELs) and NAEP. Retrieved from http://www.ncela.us/files/fast_facts/OELA_FastFacts_ELsandNAEP.pdf

This publication summarizes data about ELs participation/performance related to NAEP for math and reading. It also provides comparative statistics from 2005 and 2013.


National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition (NCELA), Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA). (2015). Fast facts: Profiles of English learners (ELs). Retrieved from http://www.ncela.us/files/fast_facts/OELA_FastFacts_ProfilesOfELs.pdf

This publication summarizes data about EL population nationally and by state and it captures changes and shifts in the EL population nationally and by state.


National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition (NCELA), Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA). (2015). Fast facts: Retention and suspension of English learners (ELs). Retrieved from http://www.ncela.us/files/fast_facts/OELA_FastFacts_ELsandCRDC_RetentionandSuspension.pdf

This publication captures retention and suspension rates of ELs and non-ELs from the 2011-2012 school year.


Valdés, G., Kibler, A., &Walqui, A. (2014). Changes in the expertise of ESL professionals: Knowledge and action in an era of new standards. Alexandria, VA: TESOL International Association. Retrieved from http://www.tesol.org/docs/default-source/papers-andbriefs/professional-paper-26-march-2014.pdf

The report examines concerns for the ESL-teaching profession in the U.S. including the current wide variance in the roles of ESL teachers in different settings, the limited number of ESL-trained specialists, the existing ambiguity surrounding the role and status of ESL teachers, and the results of variation in teacher preparation and credentialing systems currently in place around the country.


U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Department of Education. (2015). Dear colleague letter: English learner students and limited English proficient parents. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague-el-201501.pdf

This Dear Colleague letter written jointly by the Office of Civil Rights and the Department of Justice provides guidance to assist state education agencies and school districts in meeting their legal obligations to ensure that ELs can participate meaningfully and equally in educational programs and services. It also provides guidance on interpreting the Title III grant.


Zacharian, D. (2012). Serving English learners: Laws, policies, and regulations. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/sites/default/files/Policy_Guide_Final.pdf

This printable guide provides a detailed introduction to federal laws regarding ELs and their relationship to state and local policies, including information about EL identification under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

Chope, J. (2013). Video playlist: English language learners. Teaching Channel. Retrieved from https://www.teachingchannel.org/blog/2013/10/25/video-playlist-ell-instruction/

This series of classroom videos focuses on effective instructional practices for meeting the needs of ELs. Each video ranges from 2-8 minutes in length.


Colorín Colorado. (n.d.). Classroom videos. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/videos/classroom-video

This series of classroom videos focuses on strategies for supporting ELs in meeting the demands of challenging standards-based instruction.


Jones, L. (2014). Engaging ELs in academic conversations. Teaching Channel. Retrieved from https://www.teachingchannel.org/blog/series/ells-and-academic-conversations/

This series of videos from three different classrooms provides models of teachers sharing clear structures that encourage their students to talk and learn from each other through participation in academic conversations.